All about bream
Bream prefer warm, calm water with a sandy-ilovehim and clay bottom, so it can be found in the bays, rivers, lakes and reservoirs. He likes places where there is no flow or it is weak. However, in winter it is more commonly found in a small stream.
The behavior of the bream in different water bodies varies greatly. For example, in shallow lakes it constantly dwells in a thicket of aquatic plants and feeds mainly at night, in the reservoirs to the edge of aquatic plants and feeds on morning and evening dawns, and in the rivers — is located in deep holes around snags, debris, steep banks or near rocky and sandy shallows. In the deep places he usually eats during the day, and the shallow water goes out at the sunrise, playing near the surface of the water, leaning out of her, or silently “separate circles”.
Ehas one characteristic permitting the presence of bream. is a chain of bubbles: some burst, others like to replace them, pop up from the bottom. This is a sure sign: stretching his lips, bream digging in the mud — looking for food. If early on a warm morning, somewhere in the thickets of aquatic vegetation bordering the shores of the Bay or backwaters, there was a tutting noise, then there is a bream — he makes this sound when feeding young shoots.
Externally, the bream is a very interesting fish. He has a high and flat body and a long anal fin that helps it to stay upright, tall and narrow relatively small dorsal and pectoral fins are gray. Skimmers have a light silver color. With age it darkens, under the “throat” and on the abdomen a red plaque, then a Golden hue. The colour of the fish depends on the water in which it lives, and from the color of the bottom, and on the age of the fish. The body is covered with a layer of mucus. His mouth is finite, but capable of being extended into a tube — this “tool” whether to forage in the mud.
Bream reaches a length of 45 cm and a weight of 2.5-3 kg. the Length of life of the settled forms of bream — 22-27 years old, and semi-anadromous living almost two times less — 12-14 years. Semi-migratory bream rarely even live up to 7-8 years because of significant commercial catch. In southern bream grow fast, reach sexual maturity in 3-5 years, with advancement to the North the age of puberty bream is increased to 5-9 years.
The bream spawning begins at a water temperature of 12-15°C in late April — may (South), at the end of may — June (in the North). Semi-migratory bream from the sea up into the river deltas and lays there eggs on flooded vegetation. On the spawning grounds the males are easily distinguished from females by smaller size and well-developed “pearl rash” on the head and flanks. Usually spawning takes place early in the morning with noisy bursts of bream jump out of the water and fall flat on my face in the water, the noise of spawning fish can be heard at long distance.
Spanking it in the water (“lasagne” or “lasagna”) was the reason for the name of the fish “bream” or “clicking”, and in Slovakia it is called “splash”. Spawning runs together and ends in a short time. In many lakes there are several approaches bream to spawn. Because of this, the bream had different names, reflecting the relationship between time of spawning and natural phenomena. So, for example, bream-oak spawns when bloom oak leaves. Females spawn an average of 100-150 thousand eggs. Of the deferred calf in three to six days hatch into larvae, which are the first two days are in the resting stage, attach to aquatic plants, then proceed to active feeding, first zooplankton, then benthic.
The genus Breams are fishes of three species distributed in Europe, in the Caucasus, in the basin of the Aral sea and in Asia Minor: Zope, white-eyed (or pasach) and bream. Today, we are going to talk about common bream (Abramis bratna), which inhabits the waters of Europe East of the Pyrenees and North of the Alps. It is found in the basin of the North sea, Baltic, White, Azov, Black, Caspian, Aral and Eastern Barents seas. In the basins of our southern seas, except residential freshwater bream, there are semi-anadromous, feeding in brackish water and suitable spawning to the lower reaches of rivers. Ichthyologists has isolated a third form — reed small bream. To date, the habitat of this fish is strongly growing thanks to the universe in the lakes of Siberia (lake city), Kazakhstan (Balkhash, etc.), in Novosibirsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk, the Bratsk and the Irkutsk reservoir.
In lakes and reservoirs, zooplankton is important in the diet of bream in the first two years of his life. At older ages, it is fed mainly larvae of chironomids (bloodworms), caddis flies and other insects, clams with peas, in brackish areas of the South seas — mainly crustaceans, polychaetes. the amphipods and other invertebrates. Most ichthyologists’ll take bream for non-predatory fish, meanwhile, have repeatedly caught him eating the fry. At the suburban lake Deep watched as the bream are very active pecking at the bait for perch and pike. On the same lake studies have shown that bream feeds on young fish of all species living there! Predation was seen large specimens of bream, a trifle quietly ate insect larvae and crustaceans.
To better explain the mechanism of supply of bream to which he bite, will have to make a small digression and talk in General about the classification of fish according to the methods of capture, food and mechanical processing of the victims. Fish hunters — predators — thieves, predators zasadzki, predators stalking is all fish that are caught their victims one by one. Predator in available area selects a particular victim and purposefully enough. For many fish our waters typical piece of food for both adults and juveniles. As the results of special studies with the use of high-speed shooting and subsequent time-lapse analysis, for many of the fish need no more than 6 – 10 msec in order to make an aimed release a movable mouth and to suck the victim into the oral cavity. In General, the entire hunting cycle of the fish, including mouth opening, sucking, closing of the mouth (or folding of the oral tube for bream), it takes about 50 msec.
It is assumed that when the piece of food due to less suction directed movements performed in a slow movement of fish in places where food of planktonic organisms can occur simultaneous capture of not one but several objects. In both cases, the suction mechanism is based on creating negative pressure in the oral cavity due to the multiple increase of its volume and short sharp opening the mouth. For juvenile bream characteristic mechanism, opposite the piece of food, when there was a simultaneous capture of many victims when filtering, it does not identify specific victims during the search and target setting of production.
Fish that use this way of eating called filter feeders. or adelsheim. Food fish of filter — feeding organisms can occur in two different ways. First observed in fish planktophagous when powered at night (young bream) — at this time the fish are usually fixed or rarely change their position, suck in the mouth with water and filtered feed items. The second way is pouring significant amounts of water at slow forward movement. Filtration type of feeding is energetically more favorable, and breams can under adverse food conditions to migrate from the camp of pelagic planktophagous to camp fish filter feeders.
Ichthyologists have investigated the bream olfactory preferences. It should be noted that this fish is very highly developed sense of smell. He really likes the smell of vegetable oils, especially hemp, flax and vanilla. But measuring the use of smell or taste attractants are only able to scare the bream, so the main thing — do not overdo it!
In addition to advanced sense of smell, bream and pretty ear. Being in the water, he was able to hear even in water, it can hear even minute sounds produced on the surface of the water or on the shore. No wonder the bream called the “lover of silence” is a fairly apt definition. So as not to spook the bream, it is necessary to observe fishing complete silence.
The number of this fish in various water bodies varies greatly and depends primarily on the success of spawning. Favorable conditions for the spawning of semi-migratory bream — high flood. After the dams of the southern seas, the spawning area of bream is strongly reduced. To save its reserves created by the rearing fish farms, works to rescue fry from shallow waters, has lost touch with the river. To ensure spawning in the reservoirs used floating spawning grounds. In the reservoirs of multiple generations of bream appear in wet years. His numbers in some water bodies influenced by epidemics of various diseases of fish.
In 1967 in the newspaper “Soviet Russia” published the message that the eravninskiy fishery fishermen caught a strange, previously unknown fish. Some have argued that this roach, other objected — roach this does not happen. Ichthyologists Irkutsk University explained that it is a hybrid of bream and roach. In Big lake, Eravna. where hunted the fishermen, bream — Novosel and roach — its native resident, I have been interested in the hybrid, and found that it tastes better roach, and the harsh conditions of the Transbaikal tolerate better than fish. Due to the high nutritional qualities, bream has important commercial value, although, of course, in industrial quantities only possible catch of semi-anadromous form of the fish. But fishermen-fans goes untouched fishing fishing settled, more relaxed and fatty fish.