Terrain orientation

Accommodation includes determining its location relative to the sides of horizon and eye-catching landmarks (landmarks), maintaining a predetermined or selected direction and understanding of the situation on location of landmarks, boundaries and other objects. To determine its location in space, every tourist should have the skills orientation according to the compass, the map, and also on the surrounding objects.

Compass orientation

The compass is a device for determining directions. For orienteering use of magnetic and electronic (GPS, GLONASS) compasses. The most famous in the tourism of magnetic compasses, but now more and more widespread and electronic.

The working principle of the magnetic compass is that it always magnetized by the arrow is along the lines of earth’s magnetic field, i.e. in the direction North-South Magnetic field generated by the ordered motion of electrons and is detected by its action on current-carrying conductor (moving charges) or on a body with magnetization. Since the compass needle is magnetized, at the approach of metallic objects it is rejected. This should be considered when working with the compass and remove all objects which may affect his testimony. Modern magnetic compasses are of two types — liquid (the liquid makes for a more stable position of the arrow) and dry (compass Andrianova).

Device the magnetic compass is shown in Fig. The compass has an arrow, and it is important to understand which end of the arrow shows North. Old school compasses both ends highlighted red end toward the North, blue — South. On more modern devices, to avoid confusion, select only the “Northern” part of the arrow color, dot, shape of the tip. Since a compass can be used not only to determine the cardinal points, as a rule, it contains other elements. Limb — the scale in degrees for azimuth. The line is needed to determine distances on the map. The lens may be used for the production of fire under abnormal conditions.

The determination of the horizon. To do this, the compass must be installed in a horizontal position and release the brake, if there is one. The compass needle will be established opposite the North pole, respectively, in the opposite direction will be South, left — West, right — East. These directions are shown on the circular scale of the compass.

Finding the azimuth. The second important action with a compass, which must be performed by every tourist, is the definition of azimuth. The azimuth is the angle between the North direction and the direction of the reference point (clockwise). Thus, the azimuth value can be from 0 to 360°. The direction North is 0°, South 180°, East 90° and West 270°. Also any other object on the ground has its azimuth. Diagram of the azimuth for a particular object is shown in Fig. So, in the diagram on the road azimuth is 315°, the azimuth of the forest is 135°.

Orientation in the map

Ability to work with a map is an important skill in terms of autonomy, therefore, in addition to “read” maps, topographic recognition of signs requires knowledge of the joint use of compass and maps. On the map you can determine your location, choose the direction of movement to the desired points, which you need to know how to Orient a map by compass, how to take a bearing to the objects, and in conditions of limited visibility using a compass and map to move in the right direction.

First of all, to navigate around the map, you must Orient the map according to cardinal directions and to determine the point of his standing. What you have the following options work with a map.

1. Orienteering map of local linear objects. In this case, you need to approach a line feature, for example, to get on the road to find it on the map and then deploy the map so that the direction of the line object on the map coincide with the direction of the line object on the ground. In this case, it is important to ensure that the items placed on the right and left of the object on the ground are the same sides that are on the map.

2. Orienting the map by compass. This skill is especially important for orienteering in poor visibility. To Orient a map by compass, you must use the compass to determine the North direction, then to deploy the map so that the top (North) side of the frame was directed to the North. This creates a vertical line of a grid map must coincide with the axis of the magnetic compass.

Again, we recall that the compass cannot be used near metal objects and power lines, as their electromagnetic field causes deviation of the magnetic needle.

3. Orientation on local subjects (the relief). To determine a point on the map of your state, the easiest to use local landmarks, which are shown on the map. In this case, the conventional topographical location of the mark will coincide with the subsatellite point.

Determination of its location on the map using local landmarks

If the number of single landmarks do not, then you can eye way to determine its location. For this you need to Orient the map to the cardinal, selecting 1-2 local object, then find these items on the ground and eye to determine the point of your state regarding these items.

4. The serifs. When moving along a linear feature (the road, the glade, etc.), their location can be identified using local objects, located on the sides. To do this, Orient the map in the direction of the road and identify on the ground and on the map any landmark. Then you need on a topographic symbol of the landmark on the map, place the line and knocking orientation of the card, send it to the local object. The place on the map where the line crosses the road, and will be the point of standing.

When driving on the road the subsatellite point on the map you can define a reverse notch in two-three areas. To do this, select the map and terrain, 2-3 landmark. Then Orient the map by compass and similar to the previous way to draw on the line of direction in each of the selected benchmarks. The intersection of the drawn lines will be the point of standing.

Orientation to the heavenly bodies

In the case of a decision on withdrawal to the village, you need to determine what direction to go and as this trend is constantly to survive. With a compass, these tasks are simple. It is much harder to act in his absence.

In this situation most accurately determine the part of the horizon can be at the heavenly bodies: sun, moon, stars. The easiest way to determine the direction North in the afternoon, in cloudless weather, when the sun is clearly seen. It’s in the afternoon to get back on the sun shadow will indicate the approximate direction of the North.

The determination of the horizon by the sun and shadows

The determination of the direction North on the shadow from the pole

In the absence of hours when it is not possible to determine the time of half a day, use the following method. A small pole (about 1 m) is stuck in the ground, stone marked the end of his shadow. After 10-15 minutes again celebrated the end of the shadow, as the sun during this time shifted a little, the shadow of the peg is also shifted. Then through the first and second marks you need to draw a straight line (put a twig). This line will pass in the direction West-East. If you stand in front line with your back to the sun, the human face will be turned to the North.

The determination of the horizon can be produced, having the watch with dial, clock with digital indicator are not suitable. To use the sun clock to determine the part of the horizon, you need to put the watch on the hand in the horizontal plane, then rotate them so that the hour hand pointed at the sun (minute and second hand are not taken into account). The bisector of the angle formed by the hour hand towards the sun and the direction to the figure 1 (in summer) or 2 (winter), show direction North-South. And before noon, the South the right of the sun, and in the afternoon — to the left (Fig. 28). It should be noted that this method gives a relatively accurate determination of the direction in winter, less precise — in the fall and in the spring, summer possible error of up to 20°.

The determination of the horizon on the sun and hours

Night in the most accurate direction to the North can be identified by Polar star, which is moving relative to terrestrial objects, like all stars, but the deviation in the temperate latitudes is only 1,5°, so they can be neglected. If you stand facing the North star, right in front of you will be North.

To find the North star in the constellation of URSA Minor, we must first find the constellation URSA major, which is a huge, well-known bucket of seven stars. Mentally continue straight passing through the two end stars of the Big dipper and at a distance approximately equal to five times the distance between them, is the bright polar star.

The location of the North star
and North

You can define the part of the horizon and the moon, especially when due to cloud cover can not see the stars. Full moon opposes the sun, i.e. is against him. Therefore, the approximate determination of the horizon on the moon is full and the clock is almost the same as on the sun and hours. It should be noted that in the Northern latitudes during the night North side of the sky lightest, and southern — darker.

Orientation on local subjects

Local objects serve as landmarks when the clouds when the heavenly bodies are not visible, in the absence of hours. Choose those characteristics that are directly dependent on sunlight. To the accuracy of such a definition was higher, you must use some signs.

To determine the direction of North by mosses and lichens growing on separate trees as in the forest the sunlight is expressed clearly. For the growth of mosses and lichens need moisture, so on the bark of trees they mainly grow on the North side, where less light and heat. Also moss and lichen can be found on the North side on the stones and rocks on old wooden buildings. Comparing a few items, you can quite accurately determine the line North — South.

On the North side is usually the bark of trees is rougher and darker than the South, this is especially evident in the pines, birches, aspens, and larches. After the rain usually blackened trunks of pine trees on the North side, as the bark of pine developed secondary thin crust that’s in the rain darkens and swells. In hot weather on the South side of the trunk of a pine and spruce produces more resin than on the North.

Grass cover can also serve as a basis for determining the direction North. So, in the spring, grass cover is better developed on the Northern outskirts of the field, because they last longer and are better warmed up by the sun. In the spring, in the ravines and pits and snow melts faster on the North side due to the falling from the South of the sun’s rays. In the spring from the South, from individual trees, rocks, stumps, snow melts faster, because in these places the earth is warming up better.

Sunlight affects ripening. Strawberries ripen sooner on the Northern slopes of ravines. On the trees the berries turn red or yellow before on the branches, facing to the South.

Often as the subject to determine sides of the world called the crown of the free-standing tree, there is a perception that the crown is more lush on the South side. It’s not always true, as the crown depends on the prevailing wind direction. Also it is impossible to be guided by the annual rings on stumps of felled trees, since the width of the rings also depends on a number of factors, including, for example, from the prevailing winds.

Sunlight influences the vital activity of animals and insects. Ants are almost always your house was built from the South from the nearest rocks and trees, while the South side of the anthill is flatter than the North, allowing it to receive more heat and light. However, sometimes the location of the nest depends on the local climate and terrain. The flocks of migratory birds in the spring fly North in autumn and South.

To help you determine sides of the world can a forest clearing. In large forest clearings usually cut through the directions North-South and West-East. The forest is divided into forest routes to the quarters, which are numbered generally from West to East and from North to South, so the first number is placed in the North-West corner and South-East. Numbers of blocks are indicated on the quarterly columns, which are placed at the intersection of glades, and the upper part of the column otesyvajutsja in the form of faces, each of which is inscribed the room opposite to her quarter. Thus, the edge between two adjacent faces with the lowest numbers indicates the direction to the North. We must remember that sometimes, for whatever reasons, the network rides can be oriented in some other direction.

When you target only one of the local signs it is impossible to conclude about the direction of the cardinal points of one or two signs. Observation should produce more of them, to analyze and draw conclusions only after the confirmation and concurrence of observations. During movement it is necessary to carefully observe the state of the local signs, making sure the correctness of the conclusion.

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