If a group of tourists (persons) came in a contingency, have gone astray and cannot reach out to people, to find such a group in any terrain, even in good visibility is difficult. Therefore, to indicate his whereabouts, you must submit a distress signal. The main purpose of filing a distress signal to pinpoint the exact location of the group (or person) in distress to assist.
All the means of making distress signals can be divided into special (personnel) and improvised. Service funds mandatory included in the list of collateral required on vehicles. Handy tools can be made independently from the existing surrounding material. Also, all alarms can be divided according to the principle of signal transmission: audio, visual and radio signals.
To a service means the transmission of the distress signal will include the signal SOS (… — … ), which was adopted by International Convention in Berlin November 3, 1906 and is the international signal for help. For his submission to the group in distress, you must have a radio and know the basics of Morse code. The signal is transmitted on “frequency of disasters” — 500 and 2182 kHz every hour for 6 minutes (15-th and 45-th minutes). Special fireworks include flares, draughts, etc., They are included in the report card means of transport, also tourists can take the funds in the journey.
Signal mirror (heliograph) is another special means to signal distress. Engineers calculated that the brightness of the light signal “Bunny” is nearly 7 million candles. Flash signal mirror on a cloudless, Sunny day shows up with aircraft at a distance of 20-25 kilometers, and in some cases up to 40 kilometers. Signal mirror can give the alarm by day and night during the full moon and even in the misty haze.
To apply a light signal mirror makes sense, not just seeing a plane or ship, but just a sound like the roar of the engine. It is recommended to constantly monitor the horizon with a signal mirror, which can be assigned duty.
In the national rescue kits are mainly two types of mirrors.
Signal mirror with entirely consists of a metal plate, polished on one side to a mirror Shine. In the center of the plate is round, a little more than a match head, hole. Through hole and the hole in the held outside mirror pillar follow the movement of your object (plane, ship, person). Simultaneously capture reflected from the surface of the mirror “Bunny” on the rear sight. It (the pillar) look for the shadow of the cross notches marked on the working surface of the mirror. Align the center notches with the hole on the rear sight and continue to track the subject.
Dual signal mirror consists of two connected with each other by using small loops of mirrored and frosted doors. The size most frequently used in individual emergency kits for small signal mirror is 5 x 8 cm it is considered that the detection range of its signal can reach 14 km. Large signal mirror can be seen at the distance exceeding 30 km.
To signal, open sash until it stops (approximately at an angle of 60-70°) and through a hole made in the center of the mirror, eyes on the target. Visible from the back side of the mirror a blur of sunlight falling on frosted leaf, align with a hole. Follow moving target, continuously combining a stain with a hole.
If in an emergency the kit has a signal mirror, you must first learn how to use it and practice that at the moment when in it there is a real need to seamlessly transmit a distress signal.
In the absence of radio, pyrotechnics and other organic means of signal remain simple, but at the same time sufficiently reliable tools.
The signal fire. Burning brightly in the night a fire the pilot of a passing plane or helicopter can see for 20 km, when viewed from the earth, the fire is visible for 8 km. Thus, the fire is a very effective means of attracting attention, especially if you go the search for the missing.
Signal fire suit for good viewing of terrain (hills, meadow, river). To enhance the effect, you can cook some fires, arranging them in the form of any geometric shapes. For example, three fires located from each other three hundred meters and forming a triangle, or that three of the fires, elongated in a straight line are an international distress signal.
The distance between bonfires should be at least 30-50 m, in which case they will be well viewed from above. Near each fireplace, you need to add more stock of firewood. In this case, to save time and effort not worth it. Better to let go to waste a few cubic meters of harvested wood than at the crucial moment to maintain the fire you will not find dry wood. During heavy snowfall or rain fire and spare wood to protect from getting wet, cover with a piece of plastic with waterproof fabric or a thick layer of spruce twigs. In the immediate vicinity of the fireplace must be equipped with round-the-clock observation post, where day and night kept a fire in the small glow of the fire. Signal fire is ignited, when the field of vision appears the airplane, helicopter or other vehicle.
When the device signal fire in the rainy, rainy weather, it is better to do a bunk. On the lower tier on high wood flooring is to prepare the kindling and dry firewood, and the top, which should form a waterproof roof, put the dry spruce branches and from the branches of trees hardwoods with the dried leaves. If necessary, the kindling is ignited and in turn ignites the “roof”. On wet soil, especially in the swamp, you need to build a high platform, insulating the fuel of the fire away moisture. Especially noticeable fires, located on a raft in the middle of the pond. In order for the logs of the raft caught fire, lay them on top of the stones or make a bed of earth or sand. In a dense forest, where almost no free from trees and shrubs in the space, this way a fire alarm is the only possible one.
To the fire a better view, it is possible to make discontinuous -close and open. As a signal fire can be used a detached tree. Select a dry, preferably coniferous tree and draped at the base of the dry branch, at the time of passage of the plane the kindling ignited. The outbreak of the crown of the tree gives a very powerful, far visible light the torch.
Signal fire is smoke. White billowing smoke is clearly visible in clear weather. To obtain a fire erupted in planted raw branches, moss, grass. Dark smoke is more visible in cloudy weather — the fire added pieces of rubber, tires and inner tubes for vehicles, plastic, oily rags. In doubtful cases it is better to give a combined signal — and-white and dark smoke from the two close to each other fires.
Candle. Even basic candle can serve as a signaling device. Candle light is best visible when it burns inside the tissue (especially if the fabric is light coloured) or block snow shelters.
Seeping through microscopic holes in the material or through the snow, especially in the joints of the snow blocks, the light makes the walls of the asylum to glow brightly in the dark. Such lighted inside snow shelters or tents are visible much further than just on the street lit candle. If the inside of a tent or a needle to light three or four candles at the same time, the limit of detection of the light signal in clear weather, when observed from the air can grow to several kilometers.
To emit a light signal of distress from the snow havens of the closed type (caves, burrows) that are constructed inside the snow and therefore appear weak in their walls or ceiling can be cut light window to any desired shape (e.g., in the form of SOS).
The candle can be used and outside, setting on an elevated position within a large, folded “bag”, a plastic bag, straightened 4-6 compiled by pyramid poles. Polyethylene protects candles from the wind and precipitation and due to the reflection of light enhances the light signal. The candle can be set inside a plastic bottle, pre-cutting her mouth and making a few holes at the base for air supply. This homemade lamp can be tied to a long pole and mounted on the top of the tree, lifted high above the forest floor, thus making their abode more visible.
A simple signal mirror can be made of polished two sides to a mirror finish metal plate the size of a book of medium format. The better polished working surface of the mirror, the more visible light signal. In the center of the plate round punch with a diameter of 5-7 mm hole. Taking the mirror, as shown in Fig. 36, through the hole and watch the airplane (the ship). Not losing the object of tracking, turn the mirror to the sun. Find light Blik (passing through the hole a ray of sunlight) on the face or clothing. A mirror reflection of the highlight on the back surface of the mirror align with the hole. The coincidence of the hole with the reflected glare of the light signal focused on the plane.
International code table. Signals international code table laid out in the open, clearly visible from the air places — on the slopes of the hills, the glades. The size of posted signs must meet the international standard: 10 m long, 3 m wide and 3 m between the marks, but in any case not less than 2.5 m.
The signal spread of improvised means: lying on the ground sleeping, cut tent, spare clothes, life jackets, pieces of fabric, fastened by a hammered into the soil pegs or superimposed on top of the stones, from the wreckage of a vehicle, stones, twigs and branches of trees. On the seashore of pebbles or washed ashore seaweed.
Possible signs code table to dig for things to shoot with a spade or knife the turf and to deepen the obtained trench. The turf must be carefully laid along the trench on the grass internal, dark side up, which will double its width.
Can be hung on stakes driven into the sand, the cloth fabric or even thick paper. The fabric itself may be of any color, even yellow, because the paint signal will be not of the cloth, and cast their shadow. In the absence of tissue like the shadow to try to build from tied in long plaits and stretched between stakes in the meter from the ground plants.
On the snow signal “drawn” using ash from the burnt-out fire (spruce branches) or trampled. In the desert, where building material can’t be choosers, nahlebalsya small waves of sand. A sign of “works” twice a day — morning and evening, when the sun is low on the horizon. Thick shadows cast artificial sand embankments, quite well read with air.
With a significant reduction of the aircraft it is possible to submit marks international aviation hand signals.
If you forgot how to understand the signs of the international code table, it can be spread on the ground SOS signal.
You need to remember that the alarm needs to be diverse and multi-stage, only then it is effective. For example, catching on the glass of the cockpit the glare from the signal mirror, the pilot more carefully inspect the area, notice the cut in the Bush geometric shape. Down, disassemble the code table signs and the smoke of the signal fire, and finally, consider the people themselves. People should ensure that they can be clearly seen. For this it is necessary to wear a bright, orange is better, and in the desert white clothes come out of the shadows of trees on Sunny, open, and waved above his head the bright pieces of cloth and in the night a torch or flashlight.