Sturgeon kinds of fishes
Sturgeon kinds of fishes are different in that they live in salty seawater, and go to spawn in rivers with fresh water or in other reservoirs. It should be noted that the sturgeon are representatives not of large size, length 30 to 100 cm and weighing from half a kilo up to 5 kg, and representatives of the growing in length up to 10 meters, and weighs about 3 tons. The catch of sturgeon in our time is a serious craft that reaches large volumes. Because of this, the population of these species of fish is constantly decreasing and some species catch prohibited. Sturgeon are valued because of the tasty and valuable meat and caviar.
- 1 Structure and characteristics
- 1.1 General information
- 1.2 Maturity
- 1.3 the spawning
- 1.4 the Fry
- 1.5 Classification of sturgeon species
- 2 a List of sturgeon species with photos and names
- 2.1 Beluga
- 2.2 Kaluga
- 2.3 Russian sturgeon
- 2.4 Counterparts
- 2.5 the Siberian Sturgeon
- 2.6 Spike
- 2.7 Stellate
- 2.8 Sturgeon
- 3 Nutritional value
Structure and characteristics
The family of sturgeons is characterized by the elongated form of the body, where there are 5 rows of rigid spikes of bone tissue. Two rows located on the belly, two on each side and one row on the back, and in between them there is a bone protective plate.
Sturgeon is characterized by a conical, somewhat elongated snout, shovel. On the lower side is the mouth, with fleshy lips, and four mustache. The jaw structure is different retractable form, in which the teeth are missing.
The pectoral fin differs in the form of “thorns” with the thickening, and the dorsal fin is somewhat shifted back. Swim bladder connected with the oesophagus and at the bottom of the spine. The skeleton of cartilaginous fish is different, invertebrate structure in the form of the chord. The membrane 4 of the gills are joined near the throat. In addition, there is another 2 appendicular gills.
Almost all sturgeon species, before spawning the process, move on not a big depth of freshwater. Sturgeon quite prolific, since adults can lay up to 1 million eggs. Basically spawning occurs in the spring. Some species of sturgeon do not spawn only in fresh water, but often they wait out the winter. Sturgeon prefer near the bottom, feeding on worms, small fish, insects, and mollusks.
Sturgeon kinds of fishes, or rather of the about 20 species are long-lived because they can live up to 100 years, although this concerns only one species. The duration of life of other species more than 60 years. The period of sexual maturity in many species occurs in different periods, depending on the conditions of the existence and availability of fodder. Some of the species begin to spawn at 15 years of age. At the same time:
- Females Mature at the age of 10-12 years.
- Males are ready to fertilize, starting from 7 years of age.
Sturgeon are the fish species that grow quickly and gain weight quickly. The rivers don and Dnieper sturgeon to Mature faster than members residing in the Volga. This is not surprising since on the Volga river the climate is somewhat colder.
Every year spawns only sturgeon, and other species such a feature are not different and can spawn in a year or even two. The eggs they spawn in the spring and summer in freshwater rivers, characterized by a rapid flow. Caviar has a high stickiness, therefore, is held firmly on the pebbles and other stone rocks.
Sturgeon fry are born into are yolk bubble, what they feed on in the early days, until this pouch will not resolve. After that, they begin to self-search of food. Sometimes they linger in places of birth, but basically, they fall into the sea. The diet of fry consists of zooplankton, after a certain period, a little as adults, their diet consists of:
- From misid.
- From chironomids.
- Of Gammarids Communities.
But with regard to the fry Beluga, they are born without having the yolk bubble and immediately begin to search for food. Almost to adult age sturgeon develop in salty sea water. There are 2 kinds of sturgeon: winter and spring. The last species enter rivers in the spring, before spawning, and the first species enters the rivers in the fall, overwinter in these ponds and in the spring spawn.
Classification of sturgeon species
Distinguish 2 types of sturgeon family:
Previously, there were more than 20 species of fish, which were found in the waters of America, Europe and Asia. Unfortunately, in our time, the sturgeon population has several fewer types, not more than 20.
A list of sturgeon species with photos and names
Sturgeon occupy a special niche in the fishery. In our time should pay attention on some members of this family, which are of commercial interest. The most popular are the following types.
It is the most ancient representative of the sturgeon family, and the biggest. Beluga can live about 100 years, growing in the to 10 m in length and gaining weight in 3 tons. The body of a Beluga looks like a torpedo and is protected by 5 rows of protective plates. From the bottom it is white, and the top grey. The mouth is located in the lower part of the head and has a sickle shape. There are whiskers that help the fish navigate in space and looking for food. Females are large in size compared to males. Eggs once in 2-3 years. It is a predatory fish, a diet which consists of bullheads, anchovy, roach, herring and other fish.
Refers to freshwater fish of the genus Beluga whales and can grow to a length of 5 meters and a half and gaining the weight to 1 ton. At the Kaluga relatively large mouth. Distinguish between Kaluga growing, estuary and checkpoint. Mostly, this fish is found in the basins of rivers such as the Amur, Sungari, Shilka and Argun rivers.
This fish differs fusiform body shape, which ends with a blunt snout. At the ends of the mouth are located a mustache. The abdomen of a Russian sturgeon are white, flanks are gray-brown, and a dark gray back. Can grow in length up to 3 meters and weigh with up to 120 kg. Can live for almost 60 years. In natural habitat this fish can create hybrids with Beluga, sturgeon, stellate sturgeon and ship. Actually, this happens quite rarely, but the hybrids still, come across. Habitat – the Black sea, Caspian and Azov seas.
Grows up to five feet in length and gaining weight to 4.5 kg. Has a flat and fairly long tail with bony fins. Features a large swimming bladder and small eyes. Mostly found in the Amu Darya river basin.
On the body of this fish are numerous bony plates and poultry. No teeth, with extendable mouth, and ahead of him is a 4 barbels. This fish inhabits the basins of such rivers as the Ob, Yenisei, Kolyma and Lena. The Siberian sturgeon lives for nearly 50 years, growing in length up to 3 meters and a half and gaining weight about 150 kg. Spawns in the month of July. The diet included organisms living on the bottom of the water: clams, larvae Hiromi and polychaetes. In other words, this fish leads a benthic lifestyle.
Features classic appearance, inherent to the sturgeon. On the body there are 5 rows of bony thorns. Habitat – the basins of the Aral, Caspian, Azov and Black seas.
Habitat shared with this representative of the sturgeon family, as tongue. In this case, there are sturgeon, spring and winter. Characteristic features of the body structure are poorly developed lower jaw, bulging forehead, long nose, smooth and thin mustache. Almost the whole body covered with protective bony plates. The abdomen of a sturgeon white, while the sides and back are blue-black. Can grow in length up to 6 meters and weigh about 60 kg.
It is the smallest representative of this family, as it grows to a length of not more than 120 cm, weight 20 kg. the Fish is characterized by the presence of long whiskers that reach the mouth and narrow but elongated nose. At the same time, the lower lip is divided into 2 parts, and the sides of the body covered with solid plates. Such shields protect the fish from behind. Depending on the habitat the sturgeon can vary in different colors, although its main coloring is yellow-white belly and gray-brown back. All fins are gray. Distinguish between sterlet and blunt. Habitat – the Northern regions of Siberia.
It has long been believed that the sturgeon fish is a delicious fish with a distinct flavor characteristics. It is sold fresh, live, frozen, smoked and chilled. Sturgeon are starting product for the preparation of dried meat and various canned goods. Selling sturgeon in a salt form, is prohibited, as in the sturgeon meat discovered pathogenic anaerobe – botulinus, which is a source of acute poisoning.
In the old days to red fish took only sturgeon species such as Beluga, sturgeon, stellate sturgeon and sturgeon. And called it red, not because it had a pink tinge to the meat, and for excellent taste and is very useful caviar. Nowadays, the status of red fish more established for salmonid fish species. Therefore, salmon, pink salmon and chum salmon are also called red fish. Most likely, this is due to the fact that the salmon in our time is much more compared to sturgeon.
Sturgeon has its distinctive shopping and culinary classification, depending on the habitat. The first group includes the species of sturgeon that are found in Black and Caspian seas. The first category includes: Beluga, sterlet, ship sturgeon and stellate sturgeon. The second category is salmon, like trout, pink salmon or chum salmon. The latter group are salmon with white meat, such as coho salmon, white fish, salmon and trout.
Prized red fish for a large range of nutrients that are in meat. This vitamins of group “A”, “B”, “E”, “RR” and “D”, as well as minerals such as zinc, phosphorus, calcium, fluorine and iodine. Besides – this is not a complete list. But the most important advantage is the presence in meat of this fish fatty acids such as omega-3. Due to the presence of this acid improves the function of the Central nervous system, increases immunity, improves memory, etc.
Scientists have shown that people who regularly consume red fish, less prone to manifestations of depression and the risk of they have hypertension or Oncology fall 3 times. Therefore, in our time, some species like sturgeon and salmon, with restrictions on commercial fishing. Their fishing is permitted only under special licenses. This also applies to recreational fishing. For unauthorized fishing shall be imposed severe penalties. Unfortunately, the poachers, these measures will not stop.