The unique lake is threatened with ecological disaster
Environmental problems Prigancova like a drop of lake water reflect the problems of the Primorye territory here and not enough good quality drinking water, and serious pollution of soil and surface water, and forest issues, the size of which is small, but and now continue to decrease with each passing day. How to solve these problems, experts suggest, science? The output offered by coastal environmentalists and scientists to attract an active community to fight for their right to healthy and favourable environment. About it DEITA.RU published an interview with researcher of the Federal scientific center for Biodiversity Feb RAS hydrochemical, soil scientist, social worker, coordinator of ecological programs of NOCC “Living water”, Serafima Klysinski.
I would like to get to know You better, please answer where You were born, who Your parents are, how Primorsky Krai, far East close to Your heart?
– I was born in the city of Sovetskaya Gavan in Khabarovsk Krai, school ends in the village of Evoron, Solar area of Khabarovsk territory. My parents are engineers and technical workers, worked all his life in the timber industry. Graduated from Biological-soil faculty, Department of soil science, far Eastern Federal University in Vladivostok. Far East – my home, in the Primorsky Krai live since 1981, so this region, I also became a mother and all problems I take close to heart.
You are a soil scientist, hydrohilic, research associate, but in the last ten years actively involved in the work of environmental organisations, primarily in NACC “Living water”, Coordination Council on environmental problems of Primorsky Krai, DMEO “Green Cross”. You have a lot of time – a little work at the Institute?
– Time is running out, but my volunteer work is directly related to my scientific work – the research of the ecological state of the environment (soil, surface water, vegetation). Participating in social activities, I’m looking to expand the scope of application of my scientific interests and responsibilities. And doing your civic duty. It may sound somewhat snobbish, but I think that live.
What can you say about the ecology of Primorye, in General? Who at the state level has addressed these problems?
– Problems as in other regions, we have enough. The intensive development of our region with unique natural resources, access to the ocean, all this leads to the inevitable aggravation of the environmental situation now and in the future. There are also certain state institutions authorized to engage in these issues: the Department of natural resources and environmental protection of Primorsky Krai, Primorsky branch of Rospotrebnadzor, Rosselkhoznadzor, Primorrybvod.
Right “statists” with these problems?
– Of course, these structures to cope with the growing problems is very difficult. Certainly, lack qualified personnel, modern and mobile laboratories. I think that funding is weak – this not always effective work of these structures. As far as I know, some of them do not have their analytical laboratories, so that in case of violations they address to the regional licensed laboratory, and it probably costs a lot of money, and testing is not as prompt as I should. It seems strange that the Supervisory authorities do not have the full set of required operational structure – this, their dependence on other agencies, bodies, laboratories and, consequently, slow response, often with an eye on responsible environmental violations, if such monsters like Gazprom, Rosneft, coal corporations, etc.
Now let’s move closer to Hanke. Hanka is first and foremost a wonderful unique natural resource that we together with our neighbors the Chinese use for a long time.
Khanka (Khanka Large) is a lake on the border of Primorsky Krai of Russia and Heilongjiang province of China. The largest freshwater reservoir in the far East. The area of 4070 km2 (with an average water level), the length is 95 km, is dominated by depths of 1-3 m, maximum — up to 10.6 m. the lake is fed by 16 rivers, particularly the Muddy, Mel’gunovka, komisarivka; follows Sungacha river, a tributary of the Ussuri river (Amur basin). At the lake organized by the international Russian-Chinese reserve Khankaisky. Whether we dispose of this treasure? Of course no, not always, we have a lot of problems on the Russian side, and in Chinese. We try to solve them together – something, something – no, but the aspiration of the Chinese government to greening their country is obvious. We also wish the strengthening and development of Russian environmental policy. With the intensification of economic development should develop and environmental priorities. Otherwise, lopsided development, which will necessarily lead to conflict situations as is the case with any disharmony.
In recent years Your interest in Hanke particularly intensified. Two years ago, You initiated the organization of the international conference on problems of this transboundary lake and, together with academician Yu. N. Zhuravlyov became the co-chairs of the organizing Committee of the conference. What caused this interest? Whether conference dedicated Hanke, regular?
In 2015, in connection with the sharp rise of the water level in the lake of the administration of Primorsky Krai, as well as FANO appealed to our organization (then we were called Biologo-soil Institute DVO ran) to address this problem. Our scientists and representatives of other scientific organizations was organized expeditions to study the state of the Khanka lake basin. Many scientists engaged in the study of the natural environment, the biota, the hydrological regime of the lake, geographic location of the area. Therefore, in April 2016, we organized and hosted the 1st far Eastern conference “Transboundary lake Xingkai / Khanka: Causes of rising water levels and environmental threats”. At this conference were presented 80 papers of scientists in various fields, differing points of view on emerging in the basin of lake Khanka situation and forecasts for the future. Of course, we plan to continue holding such conferences, as the volume of research data increases every year. If all goes as think, perhaps, the second conference to be held in 2018 – it is interesting to summarize the past three years, to understand what is happening to Hank here, perhaps see the future “behavior” of the hunks.
It is clear that there are issues of natural and man-made, which causes people, i.e., ourselves. Tell us about those and other problems existing in the pool hunks.
A natural problem is the cyclic condition of the water level of the lake basin: the periods of catastrophic rises are replaced by the same catastrophic declines of water levels; flooding of territories to an acute shortage of water for agriculture and population during periods of “low water”.
Anthropogenic problems is uncontrolled and not always reasonable use of land in the basin, deforestation, man-made impacts, pollution of tributaries and lakes, littering areas, excess use of fertilizers in the technologies in growing of agricultural crops, livestock activities.
And if the natural challenges we influence often can’t, although some adjustments are possible (construction of dams, modernization of irrigation and drainage systems, restoration of forests), the anthropogenic problem we can solve it. This requires first of all the interest and action of government. For responsible attitude of the authorities to existing resources, to man – all the problems are solved. Especially in collaboration with public science – who are always ready to respond to the call of the state and to provide all possible assistance.
Natural problems: the increase in the water content of the hunks. The problem of the flooding of the shores of the lake is still relevant? Or Hanka had calmed down? Any suggestions on the “pacification” of the hunks was proposed by scientists?
– Starting in 2017, the level of lake Khanka gradually began to decline. How long this will last, if not replaced the decline to a sharp rise in level? Or hunk is waiting for shallowing? Forecasts expressed are different. Academician of RAS, scientific Director of the Federal scientific center for Biodiversity Feb RAS Yu. N. Zhuravlev and co-authors for the regulation of the water content of the lake has offered the project “the Second Sungach”, involving the construction of a canal parallel to the river Sungach, designed to “unload” the only river flowing from lake Khanka. There are other proposals and projects. I hope that scientists will be heard and Primorye will be able to “harmonize” its relations with lake, and also with China’s neighbors, who have long built great reclamation, irrigation facilities on its side and skillfully use them to stabilize water availability and water use hanky for agricultural purposes.
Anthropogenic problems. Deforestation. The establishment of a technical College named after Komissarov reserve. How is it going? The question of the creation of a protected area was raised two years ago at a Conference at the khanke – have you resolved it? Who contributed to it? What is the role of scientists and the public in the preservation of the remaining unique forests and steppe areas of the Western territories hunks?
Our scientists surveyed territory the alleged sanctuary in the area of the basin of the river komissarovka, together with the world wildlife Fund (Amur branch) this justification for the creation of new protected areas in this territory, at least in the form of a reserve. It is now up to ministries and departments. The public and scientists monitor the condition of the river Komissarovka, a tributary of the hunks and the natural, pristine areas that are still preserved on the banks of the river and make every effort to preserve the priceless natural heritage.
Drinking water problems. For a long time Hannity complain about the quality of water. What caused the problem? How to solve?
– The problem of drinking water is that the lake Khanka in the cultivation of rice discharged water containing fertilizers, pesticides, and other chemicals. Harmful chemicals can get into groundwater and affect the quality of drinking water wells, springs. To solve this problem you need a comprehensive: a regular sampling, to involve sanitary and epidemiological service, Federal service, locate and repair sources of water pollution.
Very painful problem – the pollution of soils in Prigancova. What is the reason? Who is to blame? What to do? That offer professionals-soil scientists to tackle the problem?
– Once again, the problem is associated with disorders in agricultural production (soil contamination by chemicals, excess use of fertilizers, the use of prohibited substances – and there is), man-made impacts − construction of industrial facilities, mining, logging. What to do? To keep their finger on the pulse connect the public from the local community, they are always on the “edge problem”, I see it all, you know; constantly monitor the condition of a soil cover of the territory.
Degradation of water resources is a problem across the country, the world. How are things in the water area of Primorye? After all, Hank is a huge water resource – how effectively used? How’s the fishing business? As far as fish in Hanke healthy? Not “bloated” whether pesticides?
– The condition of fish resources in the lake Xingkai / Khanka monitored by scientists from DVO ran, TINRO-center, they did presentations at our conference presents gets interesting data. They can be found by everyone, but it’s a long conversation. According to the results of studies that were made six years ago, in the waters of the lake and some tributaries have been contaminated by pesticides and herbicides. This is a big problem, we are ready to continue these studies with the representatives of the Supervisory authorities to identify places where there is excess of MPC and, together with the public regional administrations to try and figure out the sources of such pollution. This problem can only be solved comprehensively. But, as I said, the initiative must first go from the district authorities and enforcement agencies which often turn a blind eye to the problem. In this case, to “Wake up” those who are on duty must monitor and control the ecological state of the environment, can public. As the saying goes – “the rescue of drowning – the handiwork of drowning.” Want to be healthy Wake up and act – and awake those who are sleeping and not performing sufficient duties.
– Of course, Khanka lowland is not urban territory, but also are garbage enough, there is a direct obligation and duty of every citizen to maintain cleanliness and to signal the emergence of landfills! The district administration jointly with the public can also organize regular raids to identify landfills and eliminate them. By the way, a great example recently showed the Khasan district: government and the public unite for the purpose of dealing with waste and partially solved the problem. Not going to dwell on this. The Khasan area is clean! And what is worse Khanka? In the end, we all know – everything is in our hands. With an active community and district power suddenly turns good. Social control is a very important tool in our life, so let’s use it everywhere.
Environmental problems are multiplying hunks and almost hesitant. What to do?
– First of all it is necessary to conduct a thorough inventory of all natural resources, which are still preserved in the basin, identify where the identified environmental violations, and the sources of these violations. It is necessary to constantly monitor the state of the natural environment in the lake basin, to involve various professionals: hydrologists, hydrochemists and biologists of all disciplines, soil scientists, experts in the field of agriculture. Of course, we need continued participation in this government agencies, Supervisory bodies designed to monitor the preservation of the environment.
But how to do it? It is clear that government agencies that should deal with environmental monitoring and control – no time, no resources, Yes, and probably the desire for this kind of work. You then have these issues to solve…
Output offered by the seaside scientists to attract an active community. Competent and trained in at least simple methods of determining the quality of the environment, the public, can do a lot to solve problems. If we, science, government agencies will be to build on this broad Foundation, as a population, we can successfully and solve many problems…
I know You, in addition to scientific interests, and perform a number of public environmental projects in the area of the Khanka basin. One of them is called “Pearl necklace hunks”. Tell us about this project.
Tasks of the scientific and public project “Pearl necklace of hunks”:
1. Spend a few environmental missions (raids) under the comprehensive environmental expedition for the examination of environmental condition in areas of intensive land use on the Russian territory the object of transboundary lake Xingkai / Khanka.
2. To assess the quality of soils and water water area of Khanka on the basis of standard chemical methods and the methods of bioindication and to identify areas with excessive concentrations of pollutants.
3. To determine the sources of pollution and land users (both Russian and foreign tenants), responsible for disturbed areas.
4. To determine the nature of violations (use of prohibited fertilizers, pesticides, insecure land tenure, etc.). To make an annotated map of the violations.
5. To make records public examination of violations. for submission to the regulatory authorities of the districts and region.
6. To attract members of the public (EBA, local communities) and the government (representatives of district administrations, police) to participate in the conduct of public examinations.
7. To carry out explanatory work with violators of environmental legislation, with workers and managers agricultural associations and private traders, polluting land and waters within the hanky with the aim of increasing their responsibility for the environment.
8. Prepare appeals to the environmental authorities on the problem of the modern state of oz. Khanka.
In may of this year You, along with colleagues, went to Spassky district in another eco project “South to North”. The aim was the elucidation of the problems associated with the construction of the pig farm near the village of Vishnevka OO “mercy trade”. What did You find in Vishnevka? Told and showed the villagers?
– We have taken samples of water from surface water sources such as rivers Kuleshovka.
Spasovka, waste streams from the pig farms. The results are as follows: physico-chemical and organoleptic characteristics of water in the analyzed samples is of a temperate class of purity, with the exception of the samples taken from the streams in which discharges from pig farms. In all samples, indicators permanganate value exceeded maximum permissible concentrations from 1.7 to 5.7 times, which indicates the presence of organic contaminants, the content of nitrite and nitrate is in the normal range, therefore, we can conclude that “chronic” (long-term) organic pollution. In streams located in the area of pig farms in surrounding villages Vishnevka and Krasny Kut, also exceeding the content of ammonium nitrogen at 8.1 and 5.3 times, respectively, which may indicate fecal contamination.
Microbiological examination of water samples all samples clearly confirm the poor state of the investigated water sources for microbiological and sanitary-hygienic indicators. Standards for content:
OKB (total coliforms) exceeded 700-1000 times, TCB (thermotolerant bacteria) exceeded at 700-900 times coliphages exceeded by 1.5−2.4 times.
Investigated drinking water. A sample of tap water in the village of Krasny Kut showed the poor quality of the General content of iron (MPC exceeded in 10 times) and permanganate (MPC exceeded in 1,7 times); alarming high, although within the normal range, the content in the tap water of ammonia and nitrates (where are they in water?). These data indicate poor water purification, if any, carried out, or about the unsatisfactory state of water, in which, apparently, leaking sewer water.
Preliminary results of analyses exhibited in the far Eastern ecological site: http://east-eco.com/node/5099. Further detailed studies will help to determine seasonal and situational (on the facts of effluent discharges) the dynamics of water quality in the studied objects and to confirm (or refute) preliminary results.
How many public environmental agencies in Prehensile You created?
Open two regional offices Scientific and public coordination center “Living water”: Spasskoye and Khanka (in Spassk-Dalny and S. Stone Fisherman): and 4 of the public environmental Agency (EAD) (two in each compartment). They include community activists, students, teachers, representatives of the Khanka reserve. Work with local UAE will continue, hopefully before the end of the year to open four to five EBA in Prigancova.
Attracted to environmental studies youth?
– As I said, in our projects actively involved young people. For example, the students of VSUES Xenia Murashova and Michael piekarski – active participants of our projects, in Khanka projects their task is to perform material hydrobiological samples and draw a conclusion on the quality of surface waters on the composition of aquatic organisms. Currently they process material, the results will be included in the final Protocol of scientific and public expertise. I hope that students Prigancova in the future will be broader participation in environmental work and in our projects.
Khanka transboundary lake. As environmental issues hunks solve our brothers the Chinese. Something is done on their part to improve the environment of the lake?
– Recently, Chinese colleagues came with us to contact, we have agreed with them to share the available data on the condition of lake Khanka and adjacent areas. I hope that this cooperation will be long and fruitful.
What are Your future plans in science and in public? Do you plan to raise issues announced in the fall at the International Forum “Nature without borders”?
– I wish the Forum had organized a separate round table or a section for fresh water. The proposals we have prepared, we hope that they will be taken into account when preparing the Programme of the Forum. We plan to speak with several reports on environmental issues Prigancova.
Lake Khanka is associated with many legends. One of the oldest is this: around the coast hunks in places where walking people appears sometimes a woman in a light summer dress is a strange cut, it comes from the lake of pink Lotus in their hands. She’s silent, only waving his right hand, in which is clamped the Lotus, in the direction opposite to the lake – to go away, they say, there’s nothing you can do. Saw her say that nothing can be done about it, and breaking camp, collected in bags empty bottles, extinguish the fire and leave. And don’t say anything to each other and a house are beginning to ask themselves – why are we, in fact, left. According to local residents, this is an ordinary lake, the mermaid, and a lot of them, but they are so similar to each other that people think that it is one and the same. It drives rambunctious tourists, that did not litter the Bank of the hanky. Serafima Vladimirovna – You do not it with their colleagues sometimes take images of mermaids and cleaned up on the shores of the lake?
I’m not going to answer Your question. Save the plot? And wish the residents Prigancova to successfully join forces and help your favorite lake to remain a natural treasure, not a dirty puddle, in which it is converted people who are not thinking about the future. Let us remember that vengeance, which prepares nature, where patience ends, Hank already showed his temper. Let’s respect the natural environment, to live with her in harmony and harmony. XXI century imposes on humanity high commitment − we must be worthy of this time, for good reason, modern man called Homo sapiens – the Person reasonable. Reasonable being the key word.
According to the materials: deita.ru