Topography and reading topographic maps
Topography is the science that deals with the study area for the purpose of preparing maps and plans. The map is reduced, generalized picture of the earth’s surface or parts on the plane. Appointment cards are specialized (climate, soil, etc.) and geographical, among which in tourism are mostly used maps large scale topographic. Topographic map — a geographical map with detailed terrain image in the conventional topographic signs. The magnitude of the decrease area on the map called the scale. For use in Hiking more suited cards with scale: 1:10 000, 1: 25 000, 1: 50 000 and others. Scale describes the relationship of one centimeter on the map to the cm of the real location. For example, the scale 1:10 000 means that 1 cm distance on the map corresponds to 10 000 cm or 100 m on the ground. The scale is always marked on the map and could be numeric, named, and linear (Fig. 9). The named scale — a verbal description of the ratio, e.g. 1 cm to 100 m. a Linear scale is depicted in the line. To determine the distance between the objects depicted on the map, you need to take a string or strip of paper, measure the distance, then attaching a strip of paper to the linear scale of the map, convert centimeters to meters or kilometers.
Enough to take with you to the journey map, it must be able to read, to find all the necessary information to combine with the compass, to unravel the meaning of graphical information.
The first necessary skill of work with a map is the definition of the world. For this, you can focus on the frame of the card. The top of the frame faces North, respectively, bottom — South, left — West, right — East. Grid also focused on the directions. Vertical lines have the direction North-South and horizontal East — West. Also coordinate grid helps you quickly find the location of the site, if you know its coordinates. What are all the grid lines vertical and horizontal are numbers indicating the number grid — coordinate.
Another important feature of every topographic map you need to always consider her age. The newer the card is, the more authentic it reflects the reality of the terrain. “Old” map you have to believe less, as over time the terrain can be some changes, for example due to human activities or natural processes, which on this map will not be reflected. There is such a pattern that the areas with high density of population area changes happen faster.
Finally, an important component of topographic maps — topographic symbols that appear on the map of local objects.